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Terminology[ edit ] The word engine derives from Old French enginfrom the Latin ingenium—the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapultstrebuchets and battering ramswere called siege enginesand knowledge of how to construct them was often treated as a military secret.
The word gin, as in cotton ginis short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example.
However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Saverywere not mechanical engines but pumps. In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was merely a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses.
In modern usage, the term engine typically describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force usually in the form of thrust.
Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines. Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets. When the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was initially used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers.
The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion.
Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover —a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy.
Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, and then converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure derived directly from the explosive force of combustion or other chemical reaction, or secondarily from the action of some such force on other substances such as air, water, or steam.
More complex engines using human poweranimal powerwater powerwind power and even steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstanwindlass or treadmilland with ropespulleysand block and tackle arrangements; this power was transmitted usually with the forces multiplied and the speed reduced.
These were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greeceas well as in mineswater pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including VitruviusFrontinus and Pliny the Eldertreat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in millsdriving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Straboa water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC.
Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries.
Some were quite complex, with aqueductsdamsand sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gearsor toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation.
More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events.The history of General Motors (GM), one of the world's largest car and truck manufacturers, reaches back more than a century and involves a vast scope of industrial activity around the world, mostly focused on motorized transportation and the engineering and manufacturing that make it leslutinsduphoenix.comd in as a holding company in Flint, Michigan, as of it employs approximately , General Motors SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), internal/external factors are in this automotive case study & recommendations.
The Internal Revenue Bulletin is the authoritative instrument of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for announcing official rulings and procedures of the Internal Revenue Service and for publishing Treasury Decisions, Executive Orders, Tax Conventions, legislation, court decisions, and other items of general .
Current may travel from the center of the disk (through a conducting axle) to the rim, where it's collected either by uniformly distributed brushes or by a circular contact with a pool of mercury.
The company defined a new strategy where it would reduce the price of its products that had been in market for more than 90 days to reduce their inventory.
The primary internal and external influence on the General Motors Corporation Words | 16 Pages Executive summaryThis report analyzes the primary internal and external influence on the General Motors Corporation and the influence of changing political environment on .