The Declaration of Sentiments, offered for the acceptance of the Convention, was then read by E.
Johnson stated that the aim of the Vietnam War was to secure an "independent, non-Communist South Vietnam ", a January memorandum by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara stated that an underlying justification was "not to help a friend, but to contain China".
The memorandum begins by disclosing the rationale behind the bombing of North Vietnam in February The February decision to bomb North Vietnam and the July approval of Phase I deployments make sense only if they are in support of a long-run United States policy to contain China.
China—like Germany inlike Germany in the West and Japan in the East in the late 30s, and like the USSR in —looms as a major power threatening to undercut our importance and effectiveness in the world and, more remotely but more menacingly, to organize all of Asia against us. There are three fronts to a long-run effort to contain China realizing that the USSR "contains" China on the north and northwest: Following the Gulf of Tonkin incidentthe United States manipulated public opinion in its preparation for open warfare against a communist takeover of South Vietnam  Years before the August 2, Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred, the U.
Under President Harry S. Trumanthe U. EisenhowerB com part 1 papers U. Kennedythe U. As acknowledged by the papers: We must note that South Vietnam unlike any of the other countries B com part 1 papers Southeast Asia was essentially the creation of the United States.
It was hoped that Diem's regime, after receiving a significant amount of U. As written by Lansdale in a memorandum: While maintaining "clandestine contact" with Vietnamese generals planning a coup, the U. For the military coup d'etat against Ngo Dinh Diem, the U.
Beginning in August we variously authorized, sanctioned and encouraged the coup efforts of the Vietnamese generals and offered full support for a successor government.
In October we cut off aid to Diem in a direct rebuff, giving a green light to the generals. We maintained clandestine contact with them throughout the planning and execution of the coup and sought to review their operational plans and proposed new government.
Thus, as the nine-year rule of Diem came to a bloody end, our complicity in his overthrow heightened our responsibilities and our commitment in an essentially leaderless Vietnam. McConeproposed the following categories of military action: In response to the first or second categories of action, local Communist military forces in the areas of actual attack would react vigorously, but we believe that none of the Communist powers involved would respond with major military moves designed to change the nature of the conflict Air strikes on North Vietnam itself Category 3 would evoke sharper Communist reactions than air strikes confined to targets in Laos, but even in this case fear of escalation would probably restrain the Communists from a major military response In a memorandum addressed to President Johnson on September 8,Bundy wrote: The main further question is the extent to which we should add elements to the above actions that would tend deliberately to provoke a DRV reaction, and consequent retaliation by us.
We believe such deliberately provocative elements should not be added in the immediate future while the GVN is still struggling to its feet.
By early October, however, we may recommend such actions depending on GVN progress and Communist reaction in the meantime, especially to US naval patrols. He had worked as an aide to McNaughton from tohad worked on the study for several months inand Gelb and Halperin approved his access to the work at RAND in Before publication, The New York Times sought legal advice.
The New York Times began publishing excerpts on June 13, ; the first article in the series was titled "Vietnam Archive: The study was dubbed The Pentagon Papers during the resulting media publicity. To ensure the possibility of public debate about the papers' content, on June 29, US Senator Mike Gravelan Alaska Democrat, entered 4, pages of the papers into the record of his Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds.
These portions of the papers, which were edited for Gravel by Howard Zinn and Noam Chomskywere subsequently published by Beacon Pressthe publishing arm of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations.
Leonard Rodberg, a Gravel aide, was subpoenaed to testify about his role in obtaining and arranging for publication of the Pentagon Papers.
Gravel asked the court in Gravel v. That clause provides that "for any Speech or Debate in either House, [a Senator or Representative] shall not be questioned in any other Place", meaning that Gravel could not be prosecuted for anything said on the Senate floor, and, by extension, for anything entered to the Congressional Record, allowing the papers to be publicly read without threat of a treason trial and conviction.
When Gravel's request was reviewed by the U. Supreme Court, the Court denied the request to extend this protection to Gravel or his legislative aide, Leonard Rodberg, because the grand jury subpoena served on them related to a third party rather than any act they themselves committed for the preparation of materials later entered into the Congressional Record.
Nevertheless, the grand jury investigation was halted, and the publication of the papers was never prosecuted. Later, Ellsberg said the documents "demonstrated unconstitutional behavior by a succession of presidents, the violation of their oath and the violation of the oath of every one of their subordinates.
But Henry Kissinger convinced the president that not opposing the publication set a negative precedent for future secrets.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. Book: Air Force Combat Units of World War II Author: Maurer, Maurer Affiliation: USAF Date: Overview of Air Force Combat Units of World War II - Part 1.
from The National Archives This book traces the lineage of each Army Air Corps and U.S. Air Force combat group that was active in World War II. Page 14 [Tur n Over 2 Reading Part 1 Qu estions Look at the text in each question.
W hat does it say? Mark the correct letter A, B, or C on your answer sheet. Example: 0 A You must stay with your luggage at all times. Nov 19, · join khalid aziz leslutinsduphoenix.com part 1 & 2 accounting, statistics & economics of part 1 advanced & cost accounting, auditing, management & business law of part 2.
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