January 9, ThinkStock Alternate history, long popular with fiction writers, has also been explored by historians and journalists. Here are some of their intriguing conclusions.
Print this page Naval supremacy 'When Britain really ruled the waves, in good Queen Bess's time' was the assessment of the late Victorian age's leading satirist, WS Gilbert. He put these words into the mouth of a spoof peer of the realm in the comic opera 'Iolanthe', which he wrote with Arthur Sullivan in Gilbert's Lord Mountararat got it wrong.
Naval exploits in the age of Elizabeth I are regularly romanticised and their significance exaggerated. Late 16th century England, though growing in importance under an able, crafty and ruthless monarch, remained a bit-part player on the European stage.
Britain's naval might was not openly challenged on the high seas between the battles of Trafalgar and Jutland. Britain 'really ruled the waves' throughout Gilbert's own lifetime. Britain's naval might was not openly challenged on the high seas between Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson's famous victory at Trafalgar in and the World War One Battle of Jutland with the German navy in During the Victorian age, Britain was the world's most powerful nation.
Though not always effortlessly, it was able to maintain a world order which rarely threatened Britain's wider strategic interests. The single European conflict fought during Victoria's reign - the Crimean War of - - contrasted markedly with the 18th century, during which the British were involved in at least five major wars, none of which lasted less than seven years.
The Victorians believed that peace was a necessary pre-condition of long-term prosperity. By the end of Victoria's reign, the British empire extended over about one-fifth of the earth's surface and almost a quarter of the world's population at least theoretically owed allegiance to the 'queen empress'.
These acquisitions were not uncontested. A number of colonial wars were fought and insurgencies put down as bloodily as the colonisers considered necessary. Many colonial administrators took on their duties with a fierce determination to do good.
It would be a gross exaggeration to claim, as many contemporaries did, that those living in a British colony felt privileged to be ruled by a people anxious to spread the virtues of an ordered, advanced and politically sophisticated Christian nation to those 'lesser breeds' previously 'without the law'.
That said, there is no gainsaying the fact that both many colonial administrators and Christian missionaries took on their colonial duties with a fierce determination to do good.
Britain's status as the financial capital of the world also secured investment inflows which preserved its immense prosperity. One has only to walk along Liverpool's waterfront and view the exceptional 'Three Graces', the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, Royal Liver and Cunard buildings planned and erected in the decade or so after Victoria's death, to understand the centrality of commerce and overseas trade in making Britain the world's greatest power during the 19th century.
Liverpool's status as a World Heritage City is fitting testament to a period when Britain did indeed 'rule the waves'.
Top Industrial Revolution Victoria came to the throne during the early, frenetic phase of the world's first industrial revolution. Industrialisation brought with it new markets, a consumer boom and greater prosperity for most of the propertied classes.
It also brought rapid, and sometimes chaotic change as towns and cities expanded at a pace which precluded orderly growth. Life expectancy at birth - in the high 30s in - had crept up to 48 by Desperately poor housing conditions, long working hours, the ravages of infectious disease and premature death were the inevitable consequence.
The Victorians wrestled with this schizoid legacy of industrialism.
The Victorian town symbolised Britain's progress and world pre-eminence, but it also witnessed some of the most deprived people, and depraved habits, in the civilised world. Taming, and then improving, Britain's teeming cities presented a huge challenge. Mortality data revealed that, in the poorer quarters of Britain's larger cities, almost one child in five born alive in the s and s had died by the age of five.
Polluted water and damp housing were the main causes. Death rates in Britain as a whole remained obstinately above 20 per thousand until the s and only dropped to 17 by the end of Victoria's reign.
Life expectancy at birth, in the high 30s inhad crept up to 48 by - The Battle of Britain As the cold hand of death swept over the remnants of France, British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, orated on the imminent battle that would rage over his homeland and the foreboding struggle for survival that was now facing Britain: The Battle of France is over.
Jeremy Corbyn, London, June 9, There were three problems. Firstly, May demanded her enormous majority so that she could ride out into the Brexit battle without having to worry about mutterings in the ranks behind her.
The Battle of Britain in In the summer of , the German Luftwaffe attempted to win air superiority over southern Britain and the English Channel by destroying .
The documentary presents the battle of Britain as restoring British confidence and describes it as Britain’s “finest hour”. The battle is portrayed as victorious on Britain’s behalf; there is a sense of optimism in this clip.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of against Great Britain and its Indian allies in the Tecumseh's leslutinsduphoenix.com took place on October 5, in Upper Canada, near Chatham, leslutinsduphoenix.com British lost control of western Ontario as a result of the battle; Tecumseh was killed and his Confederacy largely fell apart.
The Battle of Mons Graupius was, according to Tacitus, a Roman military victory in what is now Scotland, taking place in AD 83 or, less probably, The exact location of the battle is a matter of debate. Historians have long questioned some details of Tacitus's account of the fight, suggesting that he exaggerated Roman success.