This step will help you organize your paper, write an outline and take notes. Subtopic headings are phrases that identify the sections of your paper or project.
Courses in Technical Writing Headings are the titles and subtitles you see within the actual text of much professional scientific, technical, and business writing.
Headings are like the parts of an outline that have been pasted into the actual pages of the document. Headings are an important feature of professional technical writing: Headings are also useful for writers. They keep you organized and focused on the topic.
When you begin using headings, your impulse may be to slap in the headings after you've written the rough draft. Instead, visualize the headings before you start the rough draft, and plug them in as you write.
Your task in this chapter is to learn how to use headings and to learn the style and format of a specific design of headings. General Guidelines for Headings Well-designed headings can help not only readers but also writers understand the organization of a document.
In this chapter, you use a specific style of headings. This style is the standard, required format if you take a course that uses this online textbook. If you want to use a different style, contact your instructor. Here are some specific guidelines on headings see the figures at the end of this chapter for illustrations of these guidelines: Use headings to mark off the boundaries of the major sections and subsections of a report.
Use exactly the design for headings described here and shown in the illustrations in this chapter. Use the same spacing vertical and horizontal locationcapitalization, punctuation, and typography bold, italics, etc.
Try for 2 to 3 headings per regular page of text. Also, you don't need a heading per every paragraph; normally, an individual heading can apply to multiple paragraphs.
For short documents, begin with the second-level heading; skip the first-level. Heading style and format, standard for courses using this online textbook.
If you want to use a different format, contact your instructor.
Make the phrasing of headings parallel. In the following illustration, notice that the second-level headings use the how, what, when, where, why style of phrasing. The third-levels use noun phrases.
See the section on parallelism for details. Make the phrasing of headings self-explanatory: For example, if the section covers the design and operation of a pressurized water reactor, the heading "Pressurized Water Reactor Design" would be incomplete and misleading.
Avoid "lone" headings—any heading by itself within a section without another like it in that same section. For example, avoid having a second-level heading followed by only one third-level and then by another second-level. The third-level heading would be the lone heading.
Avoid "stacked" headings—any two consecutive headings without intervening text. Avoid pronoun reference to headings. For example, if you have a third-level heading "Torque," don't begin the sentence following it with something like this: Keep at least two lines of body text with the heading, or force it to start the new page.Apr 16, · On a sheet of notebook paper (or cut and paste if using a word processor) write each subtopic heading and rewrite under it the questions that go with it.
Now add any other new questions that come to mind under any of the headings. Other ways to make use of parallel structures in subheadings could include using verbs (for example, evaluate, write, edit) or making use of a question format for each subheading.
4. Make Subheadings Similar Lengths. A research paper written in APA style should be organized into sections and subsections using the five levels of APA headings. APA recommends using subheadings only when the paper has at least two subsections within a larger section. Starting with the first level of heading, the subsections of the paper should progressively use the next level(s) of heading without skipping any levels.
Major sections of the paper's main body, including the Method, Results, and Discussion sections, should always be formatted with the first level of heading. Well-written subheadings help the reader understand at a glance what your article is about and what he/she can gain from each paragraph.
Added to this, subheadings make your work easier to read because they organize it. Starting with the first level of heading, the subsections of the paper should progressively use the next level(s) of heading without skipping any levels.
Major sections of the paper’s main body, including the Method, Results, and Discussion sections, should always be formatted with the first level of heading.