The Philosophical Importance of Moral Reasoning 1. Of course, we also reason theoretically about what morality requires of us; but the nature of purely theoretical reasoning about ethics is adequately addressed in the various articles on ethics. It is also true that, on some understandings, moral reasoning directed towards deciding what to do involves forming judgments about what one ought, morally, to do. On these understandings, asking what one ought morally to do can be a practical question, a certain way of asking about what to do.
Morality and the Superego: The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freudproposed the existence of a tension between the needs of society and the individual.
A proponent of behaviorism, B. Skinner similarly focused on socialization as the primary force behind moral development .
In contrast to Freud's notion of a struggle between internal and external forces, Skinner focused on the power of external forces Moral issues and understandings contingencies to shape an individual's development.
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development: While both Freud and Skinner focused on the external forces that bear on morality parents in the case of Freud, and behavioral contingencies in the case of SkinnerJean Piaget focused on the individual's construction, construal, and interpretation of morality from a social-cognitive and social-emotional perspective.
Interviewing children using the Clinical Interview Method, Piaget found that young children were focused on authority mandates, and that with age children become autonomous, evaluating actions from a set of independent principles of morality.
Piaget characterizes the development of morality of children through observing children while playing games to see Moral issues and understandings rules are followed. Eliot Turiel argued for a social domain approach to social cognition, delineating how individuals differentiate moral fairness, equality, justicesocietal conventions, group functioning, traditionsand psychological personal, individual prerogative concepts from early in development throughout the lifespan .
Over the past 40 years, research findings have supported this model, demonstrating how children, adolescents, and adults differentiate moral rules from conventional rules, identify the personal domain as a nonregulated domain, and evaluate multifaceted or complex situations that involve more than one domain.
Turiel's social domain theory showed that children were actually younger in developing moral standards than past psychologists predicted. The Handbook of Moral Developmentedited by Melanie Killen and Judith Smetana, provides a wide range of information about these topics covered in moral development today.
The moral concept of one's intentionality develops with experience in the world. Yuill presented evidence that comprehension of one's intentions plays a role in moral judgment, even in young children. In addition to evidence from a social cognitive perspective, behavioral evidence suggests that even three-year-olds have the capacity to take into account a person's intention and apply this information when responding to situations.
Vaish, Carpenter, and Tomasellofor instance, present evidence that three-year-olds are more willing to help a neutral or helpful person than a harmful person.
While obvious distress cues e. That is, they judge that victims who resist illegitimate requests will feel better than victims who comply. Emotions[ edit ] Moral questions tend to be emotionally charged issues which evoke strong affective responses.
Consequently, emotions likely play an important role in moral development. However, there is currently little consensus among theorists on how emotions influence moral development.
Psychoanalytic theoryfounded by Freud, emphasizes the role of guilt in repressing primal drives.
Research on prosocial behavior has focused on how emotions motivate individuals to engage in moral or altruistic acts. Social-cognitive development theories have recently begun to examine how emotions influence moral judgments. Intuitionist theorists assert that moral judgments can be reduced to immediate, instinctive emotional responses elicited by moral dilemmas.
Research on socioemotional development and prosocial development has identified several "moral emotions" which are believed to motivate moral behavior and influence moral development Eisenberg, for a review. Guilt and shame are considered "self-conscious" emotions, because they are of primary importance to an individual's self-evaluation.
Moreover, there exists a bigger difference between guilt and shame that goes beyond the type of feelings that they may provoke within an individual.
This difference lies in the fact that these two moral emotions do not weigh the same in terms of their impact on moral behaviors. Studies on the effects of guilt and shame on moral behaviors has shown that guilt has a larger ability to dissuade an individual from making immoral choices whereas shame did not seem to have any deterring effect on immoral behaviors.
In contrast to guilt and shame, empathy and sympathy are considered other-oriented moral emotions. Empathy is commonly defined as an affective response produced by the apprehension or comprehension of another's emotional state which mirrors the other's affective state.
Similarly, sympathy is defined as an emotional response produced by the apprehension or comprehension of another's emotional state which does not mirror the other's affect, but instead causes one to express concern or sorrow for the other Eisenberg, The relation between moral action and moral emotions has been extensively researched.
While emotions serve as information for children in their interpretations about moral consequences of acts, the role of emotions in children's moral judgments has only recently been investigated. Some approaches to studying emotions in moral judgments come from the perspective that emotions are automatic intuitions that define morality Greene, ;  Haidt, .
In contrast, adults are more likely to respond to children's conventional misdeeds e. From this perspective, moral development involves children's increasing compliance with and internalization of adult rules, requests, and standards of behavior.
For instance, Kochanska showed that gentle parental discipline best promotes conscience development in temperamentally fearful children but that parental responsiveness and a mutually responsive parent-child orientation best promote conscience development in temperamentally fearless children.
Development can be divided up to multiple stages however the first few years of development is usually seen to be formed by 5 years of age. According to Freud's research, relationships between a child and parents early on usually provides the basis forth personality development as well as the formation of morality.
Some, however not limited to are of these theoretical frameworks:Ethical and Legal Issues for Doctoral Nursing Students: A Textbook for Students and Reference for Nurse Leaders She is author of Moral Contexts and Moral Repair: Reconstructing Moral Relations After Wrongdoing, In Moral Understandings, Margaret Urban Walker not only powerfully argues the case for a feminist ethics of responsibility, /5(6).
Building ethical understanding throughout all stages of schooling will assist students to engage with the more complex issues that they are likely to encounter in the future, and to navigate a world of competing values, rights, interests and norms. Moral Understandings responds to the work of major philosophers of the twentieth century such as Bernard Williams, John Rawls.
Robert Goodin, Charles Taylor, and Alasdair MacIntyre, while putting the tools of feminist epistemology and ethics to leslutinsduphoenix.com: $ Moral Development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood.
Morality develops across a lifetime and is influenced by an individual's experiences and their behavior when faced with moral issues through different periods' physical and . In this paper the difference between ethical issues and moral issues, differences between personal ethics and business ethics, and examples of common ethical problems in business will be discussed.
Differences between ethical issues and moral issues Ethics and morals may seem the same but there is . Fordham Explores Moral Issues Surrounding 9/11 Responses 0. Moral Outrage and Moral Repair: Reflections on 9/11 and Its Afterlife, which seeks to advance public dialogue and moral understandings as the country continues to grapple with these tensions, will take place on Tuesday.