Pharmacognosy is the study of drugs of natural origin. The term comes from two Greek words:
Introduction[ edit ] The word "pharmacognosy" is derived from two Greek words: The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in and by Crr.
Anotheus Seydler in work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica.
Originally—during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century—"pharmacognosy" was used to define the branch of medicine or commodity sciences Warenkunde in German which deals with drugs in their crude, or unprepared, form.
Crude drugs are the dried, unprepared material of plant, animal or mineral origin, used for medicine. The study of these materials under the name pharmakognosie was first developed in German-speaking areas of Europe, while other language areas often used the older term materia medica taken from the works of Galen and Dioscorides.
In German the term drogenkunde "science of crude drugs" is also used synonymously. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being particularly concerned with the description and identification of drugs both in their whole state and in powder form.
Such branches of pharmacognosy are still of fundamental importance, particularly for pharmacopoeial identification and quality control purposes, but rapid development in other areas has enormously expanded the subject.
The advent of the 21st century brought a renaissance of pharmacognosy and its conventional botanical approach has been broadened up to molecular and metabolomic level.
In addition to the previously mentioned definition, the American Society of Pharmacognosy also defines pharmacognosy as "the study of natural product molecules typically secondary metabolites that are useful for their medicinal, ecological, gustatory, or other functional properties.
At the 9th congress of Italian society of pharmacognosy it was stated that current return of phyto-therapy was clearly reflected by the increased market of such products.
The plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value which have yet to be discovered. Large numbers of plants are constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value.
Biological background[ edit ] The carotenoids in primrose produce bright red, yellow and orange shades. On average, people consuming diets rich in carotenoids from natural foodssuch as fruits and vegetables, are healthier and have lower mortality from a number of chronic illnesses All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities.
These phytochemicals are divided into 1 primary metabolites such as sugars and fatswhich are found in all plants; and 2 secondary metabolites —compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function.
It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahliasquinine from the cinchonaTHC and CBD from the flowers of cannabismorphine and codeine from the poppyand digoxin from the foxglove.
Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and are part of the group of natural products also called secondary metabolites. Many alkaloids can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction.
Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms.
They often have pharmacological effects and are used as medications, as recreational drugs, or in entheogenic rituals. Examples are the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine; the psychedelic psilocin; the stimulant caffeine; nicotine; the analgesic morphine; the antibacterial berberine; the anticancer compound vincristine; the antihypertension agent reserpine; the cholinomimetic galantamine; the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arrhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ephedrine; and the antimalarial drug quinine.
Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals, they almost uniformly invoke a bitter taste. Polyphenols also known as phenolics are compounds that contain phenol rings. The anthocyanins that give grapes their purple color, the isoflavonesthe phytoestrogens from soy and the tannins that give tea its astringency are phenolics.
Glycosides are molecules in which a sugar is bound to a non-carbohydrate moiety, usually a small organic molecule. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides.
These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis, which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body.
An example is the cyanoglycosides in cherry pits that release toxins only when bitten by a herbivore.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compoundsproduced by a variety of plants, particularly coniferswhich are often strong smelling and thus may have had a protective function.
They are the major components of resinand of turpentine produced from resin. The name "terpene" is derived from the word "turpentine". Terpenes are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature.No.
Basically pharmacology deals with effects of drugs and their clinical use, so it is a branch of medicine.
Pharmacognosy deals with making medicines, so it is a branch of pharmacy. Drugs and Chemical Compounds Used in Experimental Animals. Rodent Genotyping. Drugs and Chemical Compounds Used in Experimental Animals Research investigators are required to provide information to the IACUC on any drug or chemical compound administered to research animals as part of their experimental protocol.
The following . Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. This book also provides an in-depth look at natural sources from which medicines are derived, their pharmacological and chemical properties, safety aspects, and how they interact with humans.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources, and according to WHO, 80% of people worldwide rely mainly on . Sep 22, · In other words, pharmacognosy is described as systematic science of morphological, chemical, and biological properties along with history, cultivation, collection, extraction, isolation, bioassaying, quality control, and preparation of crude drugs of natural origin.
Actually, mineral sources can be also considered within the . Pharmacognosy – Herbal Drug Technology Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Saurashtra University Rajkot - Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds - Silverstein et., al.
Instrumental Method of Analysis - Willard Dean & Merrit. Solid State Chemistry of Drugs by S.R. Byrn. 5. Chemical Stability of .