Research on situational factors that correlate with smoking behavior

Recent discussion of sexual harassment at work has focused on a few high-profile industries. But there has been relatively little credible research as to how rates really differ by occupation type. The percent of people who report sexual harassment varies wildly from survey to survey — thus studies finding that anywhere from 12 percent to 48 percent to 60 percent to 85 percent of women have been harassed at work.

Research on situational factors that correlate with smoking behavior

For permissions, please e-mail: Smokers tend to smoke when experiencing craving, but even within smoking occasions, craving may vary. We examine variations in craving when people were smoking in various real-world situations.

Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, smokers recorded smoking, craving, and smoking context in real time on electronic diaries over 2 weeks of ad libitum smoking.

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Assessments occurred immediately prior to smoking. Mixed modeling was used to analyze associations between craving and situational variables. Specifically, craving was higher in smoking situations where smoking was restricted, likely because high craving leads smokers to violate restrictions.

Controlling for restrictions, craving was higher when cigarettes were smoked while eating or drinking, were with other people vs.

Research on situational factors that correlate with smoking behavior

In addition, craving was higher for cigarettes smoked early in the day. No differences in craving were observed in relation to drinking alcohol or caffeine vs. Even though most craving reports prior to smoking were high, and situations were thus expected to have little influence on craving, results suggest that some cigarettes are craved more than others across different smoking situations, but differences are small.

Introduction Smoking may be triggered by a variety of stimuli: Craving is thought to be an important signal for smoking, and the probability of smoking increases as craving levels rise Shiffman et al, However, not all cigarettes are smoked at times of high craving: Smoking can occur at low levels of craving or even in the absence of craving Shiffman et al.

However, most work in this area has assessed craving in the laboratory and when individuals are not smoking.

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This paper addresses variations in craving during smoking episodes in real-world settings. Quantifying the covariation of craving with real-world smoking situations may provide a clearer picture of the situational factors that motivate smokers to smoke.

Consequently, exploring variation in craving across smoking situations may highlight contextual features of potential relapse situations; smoking situations in which cigarettes are craved the most may be the ones that later provoke relapse. To date, potential variation of craving across different cigarettes and smoking situations has not been examined explicitly.

We also examined variables that have been shown to provoke craving in laboratory studies. Furthermore, cigarettes smoked early in the day are thought to be associated with a particular motivation to smoke, given overnight clearance of nicotine e.

Consequently, we contrasted the first assessed morning cigarette of the day with subsequent cigarettes, expecting that the latter would show lower craving. Recent studies of smoking behavior in real-world settings show that environmental smoking restrictions can influence the likelihood of smoking e.

Accordingly, we assessed the influence of smoking restrictions coded as forbidden, discouraged, or allowed on craving across the smoking situations analyzed in this study.

Individuals were recruited via local advertisements for a cessation research program. Briefly, inclusion criteria detailed in Shiffman, Scharf, et al. Individuals were excluded if a medical screening determined them unsuitable for high-dose nicotine replacement therapy.

All participants worked regular daylight hours; shift workers were excluded. On average, participants were moderately dependent e. Out of a possible 12 days of data, the average participant contributed Disclaimer: This blog post covers only a fraction of what's wrong with "The China Study." In the years since I wrote it, I've added a number of additional articles expanding on this critique and covering a great deal of new material.

Please read my Forks Over Knives review .

To assess the relationship between situational factors and smoking, Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to “predict” smoking (vs. non-smoking) from situational variables. The GEE method accounted for the fact that each subject contributed multiple observations, and that different subjects contributed different numbers of. The purposes of the study were to explore the prevalence of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents, reveal the factors affecting their smoking behavior, and identify a possible correlation between smoking behavior and psychological variables. 9 Driver behavior. This html version contains only the text (no figures, tables, equations, or summary and conclusions). To check printed book appearance see pdf version of Chapter 1 or pdf version of Chapter Introduction It is crucial to distinguish between driver performance and driver behavior.

Many of the factors that contribute to smoking initiation have been elucidated; the strongest appear to be peer smoking and parent smoking. In addition to external influences, factors within.

Other factors include risky behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use, and sedentary lifestyle (Lantz et al. ), which may be facilitated by stress. Among men (Schnall et al. ) and women (Eaker ), work stress has been reported to be a predictor of incident CHD and hypertension (Ironson ).

[content note: sexual harassment] I. Recent discussion of sexual harassment at work has focused on a few high-profile industries.

SSC Survey Results: Sexual Harassment Levels By Field | Slate Star Codex

But there has been relatively little credible research as to how rates really differ by occupation type. Chapter 3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 Multiple choice and true and false. Test chapter 4 and 5 terms Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. This reference list was compiled by Robert Hare for personal use.

Most, but not all, of the articles listed on these pages discuss or evaluate the PCL-R, the PCL:SV, the PCL:YV, and other Hare to available abstracts, and when available, links to the full text on the Journal web sites are provided (search for [full text] on the page below).

Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers