Biography[ edit ] Robert Solow was born in BrooklynNew Yorkinto a Jewish family on August 23,the oldest of three children. He was well educated in the neighborhood public schools and excelled academically early in life. At Harvard, his first studies were in sociology and anthropology as well as elementary economics. By the end ofSolow left the university and joined the U.
Background[ edit ] The neo-classical model was an extension to the Harrod—Domar model that included a new term: Important contributions to the model came from the work done by Solow and by Swan inwho independently developed relatively simple growth models.
Today, economists use Solow's sources-of-growth accounting to estimate the separate effects on economic growth of technological change, capital, and labor.
These refinements allow increasing capital intensity to be distinguished from technological progress. Solow sees the fixed proportions production function as a "crucial assumption" to the instability results in the Harrod-Domar model.
His own work expands upon this by exploring the implications of alternative specifications, namely the Cobb-Douglass and the more general Constant Elasticity of Substitution.
One central criticism is that Harrod's original piece  was neither mainly concerned with economic growth nor did he explicitly use a fixed proportions production function. Both shifts The solow growth model saving and in populational growth cause only level effects in the long-run i.
An interesting implication of Solow's model is that poor countries should grow faster and eventually catch-up to richer countries. This convergence could be explained by: Differences in real income might shrink as poor countries receive better technology and information; Efficient allocation of international capital flows, since the rate of return on capital should be higher in poorer countries.
In practice, this is seldom observed and is known as Lucas' paradox ; A mathematical implication of the model assuming poor countries have not yet reached their steady state. Baumol attempted to verify this empirically and found a very strong correlation between a countries' output growth over a long period of time to and its initial wealth.
DeLong concludes that there is little evidence to support the convergence theory. Assumptions[ edit ] The key assumption of the neoclassical growth model is that capital is subject to diminishing returns in a closed economy. However, in this case, per-capita output grows at the rate of technological progress in the "steady-state"  that is, the rate of productivity growth.
Variations in the effects of productivity[ edit ] In the Solow—Swan model the unexplained change in the growth of output after accounting for the effect of capital accumulation is called the Solow residual. This residual measures the exogenous increase in total factor productivity TFP during a particular time period.
The increase in TFP is often attributed entirely to technological progress, but it also includes any permanent improvement in the efficiency with which factors of production are combined over time.
Implicitly TFP growth includes any permanent productivity improvements that result from improved management practices in the private or public sectors of the economy. Paradoxically, even though TFP growth is exogenous in the model, it cannot be observed, so it can only be estimated in conjunction with the simultaneous estimate of the effect of capital accumulation on growth during a particular time period.
The model can be reformulated in slightly different ways using different productivity assumptions, or different measurement metrics: Multifactor productivity MFP is output divided by a weighted average of capital and labor inputs.
The weights used are usually based on the aggregate input shares either factor earns. This ratio is often quoted as: In a growing economy, capital is accumulated faster than people are born, so the denominator in the growth function under the MFP calculation is growing faster than in the ALP calculation.
Therefore, measuring in ALP terms increases the apparent capital deepening effect. Mathematics of the model[ edit ] The textbook Solow—Swan model is set in continuous-time world with no government or international trade.The Solow per capita production function The production function model was applied to the study of growth problems by Robert Solow (American economist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nobel prize )..
Solow began with a production function of the Cobb-Douglas type. The Solow-Swan Model of Economic Growth! The Solow-Swan Model: The Solow-Swan model of economic growth postulates a continuous production function linking output to the inputs of capital and labour which leads to the steady state equilibrium of the economy.
A comprehensive, rigorous, and up-to-date introduction to growth economics that presents all the major growth paradigms and shows how they can be used to analyze the growth process and growth policy design. 3 Arthur Lewis’ Contribution to Development Thinking and Policy* Gustav Ranis Yale University 1.
Introduction As is well known, the rebirth of the sub-discipline of development economics coincided. Remittances are a new financial phenomena and one of the main important sources of incomes based on it seize and economic impact in the world.
5 The Solow Growth Model Models and Assumptions † What is a model? A mathematical description of the economy. † Why do we need a model? The .